What kills Burkholderia cepacia?

Antimicrobial agents that are effective against B. cepacia complex in vitro include trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ceftazidime, carbapenems, ureidopenicillins, fluoroquinolones, minocyline, and chloramphenicol. The antibacterial activity of cefoperazone/sulbactam is comparable to that of ceftazidime against B.

How do you identify Burkholderia cepacia?

For the laboratory diagnosis of B. cepacia, we recommend parallel cultures on blood agar medium and selective agar plates. Further identification of colonies with a Burkholderia phenotype should be performed with the API 20NE test.

Is Burkholderia spore forming?

The genus Burkholderia is a group of Gram-negative, non-spore forming β-proteobacteria with huge metabolic potential and wide ecological diversity [1].

What is the common name for Burkholderia cepacia?

Burkholderia cepacia (Pseudomonas cepacia)

Can Burkholderia cepacia be cured?

Burkholderia bacteria are often resistant to many antibiotics, which makes them difficult to treat once they infect the lungs. However, some species may be successfully treated with combinations of antibiotics.

What causes Burkholderia cepacia?

cepacia outbreaks have been caused by contaminated medical products. This includes liquid docusate in 2016, contaminated mouthwash in 2005, and contaminated over-the-counter nasal spray in 2004. It can also be spread by person-to-person contact, contact with contaminated surfaces and exposure to B.

Is Burkholderia a cepacia?

Burkholderia cepacia [burk-hōld–er–ee-uh si–pay–shee–uh] (also called B. cepacia) is the name for a group or “complex” of bacteria that can be found in soil and water. B. cepacia bacteria are often resistant to common antibiotics.

Is Burkholderia cepacia motile?

B. cepacia is a motile organism, and motility is mediated by polar flagella (3, 21). … The corresponding flagellar genes, designated fliC, encode proteins that exhibit high levels of homology to the flagellin of Burkholderia pseudomallei, another closely related human pathogen (9).

How do you test for Burkholderia?

To test for Burkholderia, ARL Bio Pharma prepares enrichment media (Tryptic Soy Broth), along with a specialized Burkholderia cepacia Complex Selective Agar. This special agar inhibits non-Burkholderia organisms, and changes color to indicate the likely presence of the target microorganisms.

What is Burkholderia spp?

Burkholderia spp. Burkholderia cepacia complex causes disease in patients with CF especially pneumonia, bacteremia, UTIs, and septic arthritis. Burkholderia pseudomallei is considered as a bioterrorism agent and causes melioidosis. Burkholderia mallei is also considered as a selective agent and causes glanders.

How does Burkholderia pseudomallei grow?

Burkholderia pseudomallei is not fastidious and grows on a large variety of culture media (blood agar, MacConkey agar, EMB, etc.). Ashdown’s medium (or Burkholderia cepacia medium) may be used for selective isolation.

Where is Burkholderia pseudomallei found?

The disease is caused by the bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei. It is predominately a disease of tropical climates, especially in Southeast Asia and northern Australia where it is widespread. The bacteria causing melioidosis are found in contaminated water and soil.

Is Burkholderia cepacia a coliform?

Burkholderia cepacia complex
Genus: Burkholderia
Species: B. cepacia complex
Binomial name

Where does Burkholderia cepacia grow?

Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) bacteria reside in soil, plant rhizospheres, and water, but their prevalence and distribution in outdoor environments is not clear.

How can Burkholderia cepacia be prevented?

Patient-to-patient spread of B cepacia may be minimized and/or prevented with effective infection-control measures. Use Foley catheters only as long as necessary. If possible, avoid their use in compromised hosts predisposed to urinary tract infections (eg, patients with diabetes, SLE, multiple myeloma).

How common is Burkholderia cepacia?

Burkholderia cepacia, a bacteria which used to be called Pseudomonas cepacia, is a rare but significant threat to people living with cystic fibrosis (CF). While the infection is most often symptom-free, it can turn serious, and even life-threatening.

What antibiotics treat Burkholderia?

Infections due to Bcc can be challenging to manage, as Bcc is intrinsically resistant to a number of commonly used antibiotics. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) and ceftazidime are considered first-line options for Bcc infections (1).

Does cefepime cover Burkholderia?

In general, Burkholderia manifests innate resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics and widespread resistance to many beta-lactam agents, including extended-spectrum penicillins such as piperacillin and the 4th generation cephalosporin cefepime.

Is Burkholderia cepacia aerobic or anaerobic?

Burkholderia cepacia is an aerobic gram-negative bacillus found in various aquatic environments. B cepacia is an organism of low virulence and is a frequent colonizer of fluids used in the hospital (eg, irrigation solutions, intravenous fluids). B cepacia rarely causes infection in healthy hosts.

Does Burkholderia cepacia require isolation?

cepacia” should be avoided. Although the guidelines also state that patients harboring multiresistant organisms require isolation, the risk of B. cepacia transmission to or from non-CF patients is not specifically addressed.

How many Burkholderia species are there?

Many other species of Burkholderia have been described since the discovery of B. cepacia by W.H. Burkholder and there are currently more than 40 validly described species (see http://www.bacterio.cict.fr/b/burkholderia.html for an up-to-date overview).

Can Burkholderia cepacia cause pneumonia?

Burkholderia (formerly Pseudomonas) cepacia complex is a known serious threat to patients with cystic fibrosis, in whom it has the potential to cause the fatal combination of necrotizing pneumonia, worsening respiratory failure, and bacteremia, known as Cepacia syndrome.

What is Burkholderia cepacia precautions?

Administer Contact and Droplet precautions for patients with B. cepacia complex, multiple drug resistant P. aerugenosa and MRSA. Avoid activities & risk factors associated with transmission of pathogens.

What is Burkholderia cepacia pneumonia?

Burkholderia cepacia is a gram-negative bacilli leading to pneumonia with poor prognosis and usually seen in patients with immunosuppression or with structural lung diseases. This report is about two patients with no underlying disease diagnosed as B. cepacia pneumonia mimicking malignancy and tuberculosis.

Is Burkholderia pseudomallei contagious?

Burkholderia pseudomallei, the bacteria that causes Melioidosis (or Whitmore’s disease), was first discovered in 1911 by pathologist Alfred Whitmore and his assistant. What is Melioidosis? Melioidosis is a highly contagious disease primarily infecting people in areas with agriculture and farming.

Is Burkholderia cepacia catalase positive?

Burkholderia cepacia (B. cepacia), formerly known as Pseudomonas cepacia, is an aerobic, catalase-positive, gram-negative rod that was first isolated in 1950 as the responsible agricultural pest for onion skin rot.

Does Burkholderia ferment glucose?

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Burkholderia cepacia are gram-negative bacteria that acquire motility via multitrichous polar flagella. They do not ferment glucose, and many clinical isolates tend to give a weak oxidase reaction.

Is Burkholderia a pathogen?

Two of these species ( Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei) are primary pathogens of animals and humans, two species ( Burkholderia caryophylli and Burkholderia gladioli) are known as plant pathogens, two species ( Burkholderia solanacearum [a plant pathogen] and Burkholderia pickettii [an opportunistic …

Is Burkholderia the same as Pseudomonas?

The Burkholderia (previously part of Pseudomonas) genus name refers to a group of virtually ubiquitous Gram-negative, obligately aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are motile by means of single or multiple polar flagella, with the exception of Burkholderia mallei, which is nonmotile.

What infections does Pseudomonas aeruginosa cause?

The most serious infections include malignant external otitis, endophthalmitis, endocarditis, meningitis, pneumonia, and septicemia. The likelihood of recovery from pseudomonas infection is related to the severity of the patient’s underlying disease process.

What kills Burkholderia pseudomallei?

The drugs of choice is ceftazidime, the third-generation cephalosporins, that used to treat severe sepsis cases that have at least a 40% mortality and a vaccine is not yet available (Wiersinga et al. 2012). Importantly, a few cases of melioidosis have been reported as resistant to the drug (Schweizer 2012).

How does Burkholderia pseudomallei cause disease?

Epidemiology and Biodefense Burkholderia pseudomallei is a soil bacterium found in tropical areas worldwide, causing opportunistic infections and the disease melioidosis, primarily through percutaneous inoculation, inhalation, or ingestion (Currie et al., 2000).

Can melioidosis be cured?

When a melioidosis infection is diagnosed, the disease can be treated with the use of appropriate medication. The type of infection and the course of treatment will impact long-term outcome.

What are the symptoms of Burkholderia pseudomallei?

  • fever.
  • weight loss.
  • stomach or chest pain.
  • muscle or joint pain.
  • headache.
  • seizures.

What are the symptoms of Whitmore’s disease?

They include headaches, fever, chills, cough, chest pain, and loss of appetite. Melioidosis can also cause encephalitis (brain inflammation) with seizures (convulsions). The diagnosis is by a microscopic evaluation of a sputum (spit) sample in the laboratory. A blood test may detect early acute cases of melioidosis.

Is there a vaccine for melioidosis?

At present, there are no human vaccines available for immunization against melioidosis. Because of these challenges, the development of medical countermeasures to combat melioidosis has become a priority in recent years (16).

Is Burkholderia cepacia hemolytic?

Burkholderia cepacia is an opportunistic pathogen that has become a major threat to individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF). … It has been reported that culture filtrates of clinically derived strains of B. cepacia are hemolytic.

Is Burkholderia cepacia gram positive?

Burkholderia cepacia refers to a complex of nine closely related species listed above. They are rod-shaped, free-living, motile Gram- negative bacteria ranging from 1.6- 3.2 μm.

Can you get B. cepacia if you don’t have CF?

While these bugs are usually harmless to people who don‘t have CF, they can settle in the lungs and be harmful for those who do. One of these is a group of bacteria called Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC), sometimes known as B. cepacia.

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