Microbiology

Is Neisseria nonmotile?

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Neisseria gonorrhoeae is an aerobic gram-negative, non-spore forming, non-motile, encapsulated, and non-acid-fast bacteria, which appear in kidney bean shape under the microscope.

What color is Neisseria?

It is a sensitive indicator that develops a yellow color in the presence of acid at a pH of 6.8 or less. A panel of four tubes, each containing a different carbohydrate, is used to test each isolate. Neisseria spp.

What causes Neisseria?

Bacteria called Neisseria meningitidis cause meningococcal disease. About 1 in 10 people have these bacteria in the back of their nose and throat without being ill. This is called being ‘a carrier. ‘ Sometimes the bacteria invade the body and cause certain illnesses, which are known as meningococcal disease.

Is Neisseria a diplococci?

Bacterial Characteristics. Neisseria spp. are a Gram-negative non-spore-forming diplococcus that has a flattened shape; its size ranges between 0.6–0.8 μm. They are oxidase-positive, non-acid-fast cocci or plump rods.

Does Neisseria produce DNase?

DNase Reactions of Neisseria and Related Species. The control cupule containing no carbohydrate remains red (no acid has been produced). Cupules with contents that are more yellow than the contents in the control cupule are recorded as positive.

Is Neisseria a Coccu or bacilli?

The members of the genus Neisseria are typically gram-negative cocci. The bacteria appear in pairs (diplococci). Diplococci have flattened opposing sides, imparting the characteristic kidney or coffee-bean appearance seen in stained smears.

Is Neisseria sicca gonorrhea?

Neisseria sicca – Gonorrhea – STD Information from CDC.

Is Neisseria aerobic or anaerobic?

The human pathogen Neisseria meningitidis is the major causative agent of bacterial meningitis. The organism is usually treated as a strict aerobe and is cultured under fully aerobic conditions in the laboratory.

Is Neisseria normal flora?

Most Neisseria and related species are normal flora in humans and animals (Table 2); their host range is shown in Table 2.

Who is generally at highest risk for meningitis Why?

Age – In general, young children are at the highest risk of getting bacterial meningitis and septicaemia but other age groups can also be vulnerable to specific types. Geography and environment – Some countries have higher rates of meningitis and septicaemia.

What isolation is meningitis?

Meningococcal meningitis patients should be placed on droplet precautions (private room, mask for all entering the room) until they have completed 24 hours of appropriate antibiotic therapy. Negative pressure ventilation is not required.

What organs are affected by meningitis?

Meningitis is an infection of the membranes (meninges) that protect the spinal cord and brain. When the membranes become infected, they swell and press on the spinal cord or brain.

Is Neisseria a Cocci?

Neisseria species are Gram-negative cocci, 0.6 to 1.0 μm in diameter. The organisms are usually seen in pairs with the adjacent sides flattened. Pili, hairlike filamentous appendages extend several micrometers from the cell surface and have a role in adherence.

Does Neisseria have LPS?

Neisseria meningitidis is the only lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-producing gram-negative bacterial species shown to be viable also without LPS. It was thought that the presence of capsular polysaccharide is necessary for this unusual feature.

Is Neisseria meningitidis encapsulated?

Neisseria meningitidis meningitidis organisms are encapsulated, or surrounded by a polysaccharide capsule. This capsular polysaccharide is used to classify N. meningitidis into 12 serogroups. Six of these serogroups cause the great majority of infections in people: A, B, C, W135, X, and Y (12).

Does Neisseria grow on chocolate agar?

Chocolate agar is used for growing fastidious respiratory bacteria, such as Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitidis. In addition, some of these bacteria, most notably H.

Why is methyl green added to DNase?

DNase agar contains nutrients for the bacteria, DNA, and methyl green as an indicator. Methyl green is a cation which binds to the negatively-charged DNA. Deoxyribonuclease allows the organisms that produce it to break down DNA into smaller fragments.

Does Neisseria have a capsule?

Neisseria meningitidis displays a range of surface glycosylations including capsule polysaccharide, lipooligosaccharide and O-linked glycoproteins. While N. gonorrhoeae does not have a capsule, it does express both lipooligosaccharide and O-linked glycoproteins.

Is Neisseria cocci or rod?

Bacterial Characteristics. Neisseria spp. are a Gram-negative non-spore-forming diplococcus that has a flattened shape; its size ranges between 0.6–0.8 μm. They are oxidase-positive, non-acid-fast cocci or plump rods.

Is Neisseria gonorrhoeae intracellular or extracellular?

Neisseria gonorrhoeae can survive either as an extracellular organism, or, alternatively, as an intracellular organism within a variety of different cell types.

Does Neisseria have lipid A?

Recently, we demonstrated that a surprisingly large fraction of Neisseria meningitidis disease isolates are lipid A mutants, due to inactivating mutations in the lpxL1 gene.

Where is Neisseria sicca found?

Neisseria sicca is a gram-negative diplococcus found as nor- mal human oral and upper respiratory tract flora; it is considered one of the commensal Neisseria species.

What disease does Neisseria sicca cause?

Neisseria sicca: A Rare Cause of Bacterial Conjunctivitis.

Does Neisseria gonorrhoeae grow on MSA?

Gonococci are not able to grow on common blood agar. Colonies are positive by the oxidase test and the result is confirmed with carbohydrate reactions (meningococci oxidize glucose and usually maltose, but not sucrose and lactose).

How is Neisseria harmful?

If left untreated, N. gonorrhoeae can cause meningitis with septicemia and resulting arthritis and acute endocarditis upon further dissemination of organisms. N. meningitidis colonizes the nasopharynx and is the second most prevalent causative agent of meningitis in the United States.

Is Neisseria a Anaerobe?

Abstract. Neisseria gonorrhoeae is generally considered to be an obligate aerobe; it can, however, grow in the absence of oxygen by anaerobic respiration by using nitrite as a terminal electron acceptor.

Is Neisseria intracellular?

Neisseria species are fastidious, Gram-negative cocci that require nutrient supplementation to grow in laboratory cultures. Neisseria spp. are facultatively intracellular and typically appear in pairs (diplococci), resembling the shape of coffee beans.

Where is the most bacteria found in the human body?

The majority of the bacteria found in the body live in the human gut. There are billions of bacteria living there (Figure 2). We call the group of all the microbes found in the body the human microbiota [1]. These microorganisms colonize the body, which means that they usually do not cause any harm.

What bacteria lives on the skin?

  • Cutibacterium acnes. Cutibacterium acne lives on oily surfaces of your skin and hair follicles. …
  • Corynebacteria. Corynebacteria includes non-pathogenic and pathogenic bacteria. …
  • Staphylococcus epidermidis. …
  • Staphylococcus aureus. …
  • Micrococcus luteus.

What is the natural reservoir for gonorrhea?

Humans are the reservoir.

What are the 3 types of meningitis?

  • Viral meningitis. Viral meningitis is the most common type of meningitis. …
  • Bacterial meningitis. Bacterial meningitis is contagious and caused by infection from certain bacteria. …
  • Fungal meningitis. Fungal meningitis is a rare type of meningitis. …
  • Parasitic meningitis. …
  • Non-infectious meningitis.

What are the 5 types of meningitis?

There are actually five types of meningitis — bacterial, viral, parasitic, fungal, and non-infectious — each classified by the cause of the disease.

What are the 2 types of meningitis?

Meningitis is usually caused by viruses or bacteria. Viral meningitis is the most common type of meningitis, followed by bacterial meningitis. Rarer types of meningitis include chemical and fungal meningitis.

What PPE do you wear for meningitis?

Wear gloves and protective clothing such as a gown or lab coat, shoes, and a mask (if the spill may contain a respiratory agent or if the agent is unknown).

What are 3 types of isolation precautions?

There are three types of transmission-based precautions–contact, droplet, and airborne – the type used depends on the mode of transmission of a specific disease.

Does meningitis require airborne precautions?

Bacterial meningitis is NOT spread through casual contact or the airborne route; however, some bacteria can be spread by close contact with respiratory droplets (e.g., in daycare centers).

What are the 3 most common causes of bacterial meningitis?

Bacterial Meningitis is the most common type of meningitis. Three types of bacteria are responsible for 80% of all Bacterial Meningitis. These are: 1) Hemophilus influenzae (type B), 2) Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pneumococcus), and 3) Neisseria meningitidis (Meningococcus).

What are the long term side effects of meningitis?

  • Memory loss/lack of concentration/difficulty retaining information.
  • Clumsiness/co-ordination problems.
  • Headaches.
  • Deafness/hearing problems/tinnitus/dizziness/loss of balance.
  • Epilepsy/seizures.
  • Weakness/paralysis/spasms.
  • Speech problems.
  • Loss of sight/vision problems.

What are the long term side effects of spinal meningitis?

  • speech problems.
  • issues with memory.
  • loss of coordination.
  • learning difficulties.
  • hearing loss.
  • vision loss.
  • seizures.
  • hydrocephalus, which is a buildup of fluid in the brain.

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